German word meaning 'bent wood', krummholz describes the twisted, stunted trees near treeline line on a mountain :: Continual exposure to strong, freezing winds can cause alpine vegetation to become stunted and deformed. Wind kills branches on the windward side, giving the tree a characteristic flag-like appearance. The flag appears on the lee side, or the side that enjoys a modicum of protection from the wind. Common trees showing Krumholtz formation include Subalpine Fir, Subalpine Larch, Engelmann Spruce, Limber Pine, and Lodgepole Pine.

Lake Helene, Rocky Mountain National Park